Checkbox is an input control that lets users select one or more options from a list of options.


This component should use the HTML <input type="checkbox" /> element under the hood.

#Hover state

Indicates that the checkbox is interactive when hovered with the mouse.

#Active state

Indicates that the checkbox is currently being activated.

#Focus state

Indicates that the focus in the document is currently on the checkbox.

For the sake of aesthetics, it can be tempting to remove default browser focus styles with outline: 0;

Do not do this before adding your own custom focus styles!

#Disabled state

Indicates that the checkbox is not interactive.

If necessary, used in combination with a Tooltip to provide a brief explanation on hover.

#Checked state

Indicates whether the checkbox has been checked.

#Indeterminate state

Indicates that the checkbox is partially checked and controls a set of sub-checkboxes.

#Mixed state checkbox

A mixed state checkbox represents the state of a set of checkboxes.

If none of the checkboxes in the set are checked, the mixed state checkbox is not checked, and if all members of the set are checked, the mixed state checkbox is checked. Oof, how's that for a tongue twister?

If the set contains both checked and unchecked checkboxes, the mixed state checkbox is partially checked.

In this case, "All ingredients" is a mixed state checkbox:

Choose ingredients


Based on the W3 Success Criterion for Target Size, checkboxes should adapt to pointer inputs by expanding in size to a minimum of 44px.

#Best practices

#Provide a label

A standalone checkbox without a label does not describe its purpose. Make sure to associate the checkbox with a visible and accessible label.

Additionally, remember to label groups of related checkboxes.

#Use positive and clear wording

Use active voice for the label to minimize ambiguity about the purpose of the checkbox.

For example, prefer "Disable notifications" over "Don't send me notifications".

#Do not trigger actions

Checkboxes should not be used to trigger immediate actions such as enabling or disabling a feature. Rather, request confirmation from the user before applying the changes.

A more suitable alternative for triggering actions would be the Toggle component.


#Styling HTML checkboxes

HTML checkboxes used to be notoriously tricky to style. Not to mention that each browser has its own appearance for the element, making it look and feel different across platforms.

To implement accessible checkboxes with custom styling, there are two options:

  1. Re-implement the native checkbox with all of its keyboard interactions and ARIA roles.
  2. Remove the native styling from the checkbox and apply custom styles.

Do not use display: none to hide the native checkbox. This will prevent it from receiving focus and being keyboard navigable.

In most cases, you would use the second option like so:

<label class="label">
<input type="checkbox" class="checkbox" checked />
viewBox="0 0 24 24"
<polyline points="20 6 9 17 4 12" />
.label {
display: inline-flex;
align-items: center;
justify-content: center;
position: relative;
.checkbox {
// Remove the native styling.
appearance: none;
// Style the checkbox.
width: 24px;
height: 24px;
margin: 0;
border-radius: 4px;
box-shadow: 0 2px 4px 0 #6469ff4d;
.checkbox:checked {
background: #6469FF;
.check {
position: absolute;
color: white;
width: 16px;
height: 16px;

Now it's just a matter of wiring up events, styling the relevant states, and sprinkling some fancy animations on top! ✨


Strive to always use the native checkbox element. By doing so, you get proper keyboard navigation and ARIA roles out of the box.

If for some reason that's not possible, refer to the WAI-ARIA Practices for Checkbox for accessibility implementation details:

#Provide a <label> element

A <label> element should be associated with the checkbox so that:

  • Clicking on the <label> will toggle the checkbox, providing a larger hit area for mobile users.
  • Screen readers will read out the label when the checkbox is focused, making it easier for an assistive technology user to understand the purpose of the checkbox.
<input type="checkbox" id="tomato" />
<label for="tomato">Tomato</label>

#Grouped checkboxes

Use the <fieldset> and <legend> HTML elements to group checkboxes and provide both visual and auditory feedback to users.

<legend>Choose ingredients</legend>
<input type="checkbox" value="tomato" />
<input type="checkbox" value="lettuce" />
<input type="checkbox" value="cucumber" />

Now, when navigating through the form, a screen reader will announce the instructions before it announces the first checkbox.

As a bonus, setting the disabled attribute on <fieldset> will disable all descendant form controls.

#Mixed state checkbox

If a checkbox is indeterminate and it's descendants are not checked, convey the mixed state by placing aria-checked="mixed" on it.

Additionally, use aria-controls to identify the set of checkboxes controlled by the mixed checkbox.

<input type="checkbox" aria-checked="mixed" aria-controls="1 2" />
<input type="checkbox" id="1" checked />
<input type="checkbox" id="2" />